Apparently people like it when I publish what amounts to raw notes. Actually, that makes sense: I’m more to the point, the notes are easy to scan, and they serve as a jumping-off point for one’s own studies. So, that being the case, here’s a follow-up to Messiah in Genesis.
The principle (human) figure of the book of Exodus is, of course, Moses. Moses (Heb. Moshe, “to pull out”; Egyptian Mu- (“water”) Ses (“came up”) is the most distinctly messianic figure in the Bible other than Yeshua, surpassing even David and Joseph in the number of connections he has to the Messiah. Moses serves as a ruler to Israel, a lawgiver, an intermediary with God (beyond even what Aaron, the high priest, could accomplish), and the ultimate example of a prophet. The end of his life left a void in Israel that only the Messiah could fill:
Deu 18:15-19 – The LORD your God will raise up to you a prophet from the midst of you, of your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him. This is according to all that you desired of the LORD your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, “Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I not die.” The LORD said to me, “They have well said that which they have spoken. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brothers, like you; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him. It shall happen, that whoever will not listen to my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. (This is directly quoted by Peter in Acts 3:22-24.)
Num 12:6-8 – He said, “Hear now my words. If there is a prophet among you, I the LORD will make myself known to him in a vision. I will speak with him in a dream. My servant Moses is not so. He is faithful in all my house. With him I will speak mouth to mouth, even plainly, and not in riddles; and he shall see the LORD’s form. Why then were you not afraid to speak against my servant, against Moses?” (See Heb. 3:1-6.)
The Torah ends with these words:
Deu 34:10-12 – There has not arisen a prophet since in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the LORD sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all the mighty hand, and in all the great terror, which Moses worked in the sight of all Israel.
- Moses was raised in a royal household; Yeshua was born to the noble house of David
- Both Moses and Yeshua had to flee early in life from a king who wanted to kill them; ironically, Moses fled from Egypt, while Yeshua fled to Egypt. (In this case, Yeshua’s life more closely reflected the history of all Israel; see Mat. 2:15 and Hos. 11:1.)
- Both were initially popular due to the signs they performed (Exo. 4:29-31) but later rejected by the leaders of Israel out of fear for their Gentile overlords (Exo. 5:21; John 11:48).
- Through Moses, Hashem cast down the gods of Egypt (Exo. 12:12, 15:11); through Yeshua, Hashem cast out the gods (demons) infesting his people and the world.
- Both attacks on the dark spiritual realm are described as “the finger of God” (Exo. 8:19; Luke 11:20; cf. Exo. 31:18).
- Moses stretched his hand out against the sky, and three days of darkness fell (Exo. 10:21-22); when Yeshua’s two hands were stretched out on the cross, darkness fell for three hours (Mat. 27:25; cf. Rev. 16:10).
- To bring them out of Egypt, Moses “baptized” the people in the Sea of Suf (Exo. 14; 1Co. 10:2); to bring us out of the world-system, Yeshua immerses his people in water, fire, and the Spirit (Luke 3:16; 1Pt. 3:21).
- Moses struck the rock to bring forth the water the people needed to live; to give his people the “living water,” the Holy Spirit, Yeshua was struck (John 7:38-39; 1Co. 10:4).
- Moses gave the people mana, which sustained their bodies for a time; Yeshua is the Bread of Life, who sustains us, body and soul, forever (John 6:48-51).
- Both inaugurated a new covenant with the blood of a sacrifice (Exo. 24; Luke 22:20; Heb. 9:18-20).
- Moses taught the twelve tribes; Yeshua taught the twelve disciples. Moses appointed 70 elders (the Sanhedrin; Exo. 24:1, 9-10); Yeshua appointed 70 messengers (Luke 10). See here for more details.
- Moses asked that his life be blotted out to atone for Israel’s sin (Exo. 32:32); Yeshua’s life really was blotted out to atone for the sins of Israel and the whole world!
- Moses ascended into the mountain so that God could dwell among Israel (Exo. 24:18; 34:1-9); Yeshua ascended into heaven so that the Spirit of God could dwell in his faithful (Acts 1:9; John 16:5-15).
- Moses ascended to see the pattern of heaven (Exo. 29:5, 40); Yeshua ascended to enter the reality behind the pattern (Rev. 4-5).
- Moses built a tabernacle so that God could dwell among his people (Exo. 25:8, 29:45-46); Yeshua is the temple of God (John 2:19) who died so that Hashem–in the form of his Holy Spirit–could dwell in us (1Co. 3:16, 2Co. 6:16).
- Moses saw the form of the Eternal One (Num.12:8), but not completely (Exo. 34:1-9); Yeshua was the only one who has seen the Eternal completely, because he came forth from God (John 6:46).
- Moses for a time removed the tent of meeting from the camp due to Israel’s sin (Exo. 33:7-11); Yeshua for a time removed the Assembly (Church) from the midst of Israel due to Israel’s sin. However, both continued to intercede for Israel until the nation would be forgiven (Exo. 33:12-17; Rom. 11).
As for the ceremonies introduced in Exodus, they are all described in more detail in Leviticus, so we’ll pick up there.